Tuesday, October 18, 2016

People with Blue Eyes Can be Traced Back to an Ancestor from Tens of Thousands of Years ago

All throughout history blue eyes have been the eye color that are many of us have adored.

From famous stars like Brad Pitt, Matt Damon and Paul Newman's whose eyes melted a million hearts while Meg Ryan's look and sex appeal was the envy of many. but for the older generation Marilyn Monroe would be one of the most distinguished stars of all time who had blue eyes.

Roots of Blue Eyes

But where did blue eyes start has always been something of a genetic mystery so let’s try to find out more about the subject.

According to a team of researchers from Copenhagen University, a single mutation which arose as recently as 6-10,000 years ago was responsible for all the blue-eyed people alive on Earth today.

The team, whose research is published in the journal Human Genetics, identified a single mutation in a gene called OCA2, which arose by chance somewhere around the northwest coasts of the Black Sea in one single individual, about 8,000 years ago.

Brad Pitt

The blue eye gene does not "make" blue in the iris; rather, it turns off the mechanism which produces brown melanin pigment. "Originally, we all had brown eyes," says Dr Hans Eiberg, who led the team.

And most people still do. The finding that a rare mutation, probably dispersed in the rapid wave of colonization that followed the end of the last ice age, highlights one of the great mysteries of human evolution: the oddness of Europeans.

Those from Europe and the Near-East have many characteristics that set them apart from the rest of the human race.

Matt Damon

Not only are Europeans far more likely to have blue eyes (95 per cent in some Scandinavian countries), they also have a far greater range of skin tones and hair color than any other ethnic grouping.

It is only in Europe that you will find large numbers of blondes and redheads, brunettes, pale skins and olive skins, blue eyed and green-eyed people living together in the same communities. Across the rest of the world people are almost uniformly dark haired and dark-eyed.

Why this should be remains unknown, and in particular how such mutations can have arisen so quickly since Europe was colonized by Africans just a few tens of thousands of years ago.'

Vitamins and White Skin

One theory is that Europe's cold weather and dark skies played a part. Fair skin is better at making Vitamin D from the 8 per cent of the world's population have blue eyes weak sunlight found in northern latitudes.

Another suggestion is that the strange skin, eye and hair colors seen in Europe are down to ancient interbreeding with the Neanderthals, who died out about 25,000 years ago.

Maybe the Neanderthals were blonde or red-haired and it is their genes which we have inherited. The trouble with this theory is that there is no evidence, from the scraps of Neanderthal DNA that have been recovered from bones, that there was any substantial interbreeding between them and Homo sapiens at all.

More Theories

Perhaps the most plausible theory is that blonde hair and blue eyes arose because of a mechanism called sex selection.

This is where males and females choose as their mates those who have one unusual physical characteristic, not necessarily associated with "fitness" but simply something unusual.
The gigantic (and otherwise useless) tail of the peacock is the best example.

Sex selection comes to the fore when there is a lot of competition for mates of one sex or the other. The theory is that in Europe, where men had to spend weeks at a time out on the hunt, males were in very short supply.

In such societies, women who had flaxen locks stood a better chance of standing out and attracting the attention of the few men that would have been available for mating.

Even back then, the blue-eyed blonde was not only in demand, but also definitely would have had more fun.

Meg Ryan

Concluding the Study of where Blue Eyes Begun

There are a number of theories from where Blue Eyes originated but it seems obvious that they first started in the European Germanic and Scandinavian regions.

Saturday, July 12, 2014

Blue Eyes

People that have blue eyes are often envied for their beautiful eyes.  People with blond or fair hair often have blue eyes

There is no blue pigmentation either in the iris or in the ocular fluid. Study has revealed that the iris pigment epithelium is brownish black due to the presence of melanin. Blue eyes have low amounts of melanin in the stroma of the iris, which sits in front of the dark epithelium.

beautiful blue eyes

99% of the population of Estonia have blue eyes a study by the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at the University of Copenhagen found. Blue eyes are common in other parts of northern and eastern Europe, particularly in Scandinavia and near the Baltic Sea. About 90% of the people of Denmark have blue eyes, the others are mainly immigrants. In Germany, about 75% have blue eyes. Blue eyes are also found in southern Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, and West Asia, especially among the Jewish population of Israel. .

Recently there has been a study done on blue eyes and their origins. This article claims that All blue-eyed people can be traced back to one ancestor who lived 10,000 years ago near the Black Sea.

Our society does seem to have a fascination with blue eyes that is not so common for other eye colors. Blue eyes can be seen as piercing and beautiful or cold and chilling, it depends on the person.

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Bolle Satellite Sunglasses Review

bolle satellite polarisedThese Bolle Satellite polarised sunglasses look good in brown and are very comfortable. They have a cut out pattern which provides ventilation which will be handy when I travel to tropical areas. They are very lightweight too which is a bonus for travelers.

You can pick them up online for less than $100 US plus shipping but expect to pay nearly twice than that in some retail stores. Actually Amazon have them for around $80-$90

I compared mine to a pair of old Vaurnets. The Bolles are much lighter in the sun but are better at evening or darker times. The Vaurnets color is much nicer with the rich green yellows. The Bolles offer a bit of variety compared to the Vaurnets but I will be looking for a pair of Vaurnets soon too as once you own them nothing else compares, not even Bolle's but it's a nice change all the same and they serve well as another pair of versatile sunglasses.

Update 3 years on
I have now owned the Bolle Satellite Sunglasses for over 3 years. I have kept them in the nice pouch that came with them and looked after them. They are basically still scratch free and I use them all the time. I love how they are so light to wear and very comfortable. The Bolle Satellite Sunglasses look good and I really do recommend these great pair of sunglasses.

Sunday, January 2, 2011

What Color Is Hazel?

It is not that easy to define hazel eyes exactly due to the larger range of the colors that can be considered as hazel. The easiest way to describe hazel eyes is that they are a brown/green in color.

Hazel Eye Color Brown Tone

Hazel eye color will usually have a brown tone at the center, surrounded by green color. However, the color range for these type of eyes is wider and several other shades like light brown, yellowish brown, green blue with brown, greenish brown, golden brown etc. are also termed as hazel eyes.

Reflecting Light

One of the interesting features of hazel eye color is that it reflects the color of the clothing, the person wears. Therefore, hazel eyes color may appear darker shade depending on the color of the person's clothes. However, it should also be noted that a mere green blue color is not called as hazel. A hazel eye color always has a bit or a lot of brown in it.
hazel eyes

Hazel eyes are not really a rare eye color and are commonly found in many parts of the world. Hazel colored eyes are mostly found in the continent of Asia, North and South America; and nations like Austria, Argentina, Brazil, Czech Republic, England, France, Italy, Mexico, Spain, etc.

Changing Eye Color

Most people notice that their eyes change color as they get older. As the eye is exposed to sunlight, the melanocytes within the iris begin to produce melanin pigment and the eye color slowly begins to change towards a more natural color.

Eyes Change as we Age

Don't be surprised if you or your children notice your eyes changing color. In fact most peoples eye color will change when they reach puberty.

Blue eye

 A lot of children are born with bright blue eyes and like fair hair it often changes as they grow older.

The Complexity of the Human Eye

The human eye color originates from three genes, two of which are usually understood. These genes account for the most common colors — green, brown, and blue.

Other colors, including gray, hazel and various combinations are not completly understood to date. Recent science has proved that eye color is not a simple subject. Eye colors don't come out as a trait mixed from their parents colors. Each parent has two pairs of genes on each chromosome. So multiple possibilities can be produced, and nothing is predictable in this area.

Natural Eye Color

Each person has a different color and set of eyes to the next, no two sets of eyes are the same! As with skin color tones like light, dark or medium-colored, there are variations in natural eye colors.

The amount of the pigment melanin defines the color of the iris. The more the amount of melanin, the darker the eye, skin and hair color. If the amount of the pigment melanin is less, then the iris or eye color will be of a lighter shade like blue or gray eyes. If the amount of pigment is high, then the eye color will be dark like black eyes or brown eyes.

The darker our eyes then the less sensitive to the sun they are, compared to light colored eyes and need less eye care generally.

Natural Eye Colors

Blue: Blue is a common eye color among people born in countries like in North West Europe like the countries of Scandinavia. In places like Africa or Asia then blue eyes are very rare. As the production of melanin pigment generally increases during the first few years of life, blue eyes in some babies might darken with age.
Natura Eye Color

Brown: This is one of the most common eye colors seen in people. It occurs due to large amounts of melanin within the iris stroma. People with dark brown eye color can give the appearance of having black colored eyes.

Hazel: Hazel colored eyes are also quite common, and are a result of a combination of Rayleigh scattering, and a modest amount of melanin in the front border of the iris. Hazel eye color has been observed as medium color between light brown and dark green.

Gray: Gray is considered to be a darker shade of blue. This eye color, means low melanin in the iris. Gray eyes have also been observed with small amounts of yellow and brown color in the iris. People belonging to countries like Russia, Baltic States and Finland, often, have gray eyes.

Rare Natural Eye Colors

Violet: Violet or purple eyes are mostly seen in albinos. The eyes of some albinos seem to be violet, due to the mixing of red and blue reflections. These shade of eyes are a form of blue eyes or due to a mutation.

Red: Red is probably the rarest eye color observed among human beings, again it can be seen in albino humans.

Green: Green is a very rare eye color, and very few percentage of people in the world are born with it. This occurs due to the moderate production of melanin.

Amber: Amber colored eyes have a strong golden and coppery tint. Amber eyes occur due to the deposition of lipochrome, which is the yellow pigment in the iris. It is a very rare eye color, and is also known as 'wolf eyes', because amber eyes are common in wolves.

Black: Black is a rare eye color, people who have high amount of melanin pigment have black eyes. In fact, people with very dark brown eyes give the appearance of black colored eyes.

These were the various natural eye colors. Many people will have two different colored eyes, for example one eye will be brown and other light green. This ocular condition is known as heterochromia. However, it is possible to change natural eye color, or correct such ocular condition or get rid of congenital defects of iris. This is done by intra-ocular implant which improves the appearance of the eye color.

Rare Eye Color

The eye color that we all are given is determined by genetics, but no one gene that determines what that color will be. The OCA2 gene often controls the amount of melanin pigment that a body generates, which affects most of human eye color tone, but even that gene is impacted by many other factors in the DNA. Most peoples eyes are brown or blue, but other colors like hazel and gray are slightly more rare.
rare eye color

  • Green eye color is the most is not quite as rare as other colors as it is found throughout the world but is only in about 2 percent of the total world population. This color is produced by a large amount of melanin in the iris during development, which is a result of genetics.

  • Amber-colored eyes consists of a golden or yellow pigment with a bit of copper and rust tint. Lipochrome, the name of the yellow pigment, is extremely rare and as a result few people have this eye color.

  • Most often, red-colored eyes are found in humans who have pigment problems, such as albinos. Some rare cases exist in which people without pigment troubles will have red eyes; this pigment may be the result of a small leak of blood into the iris causing a reddish eye.

  • There are a couple different situations that lead to eyes appearing violet. When there is not enough pigment in the iris to cover blood vessels, the light that reflects off these vessels make the eyes appear violet. This can also occur if a person with blue eyes has reddish bloodshot eyes from irritation, making the eyes appear violet. If this second situation is the case, the violet color in the eyes is temporary.

  • Some people believe that black eyes do not actually exist and that the color is really just an extremely dark brown. There have been a few cases, however, that point to purely black eyes in human beings according to the book "Evolution of the Eye."